What is a representation review?

    It’s is a review of the arrangements for electing representatives when local elections are held.

    Why are you doing it?

    All local councils are required to carry out a representation review at least every six years. This is to ensure residents have fair and effective representation at local elections.

    Selwyn District Council undertook the last review in 2015, in preparation for the 2016 elections. So we need to do another review this year (2021), in preparation for 2022 and 2025 local elections.

    What does the representation review look at?

    How the review is undertaken is set out in the Local Electoral Act 2001. The Council has to consider three key factors when reviewing representation arrangements:

    •  Fair representation of electors
    • Communities of interest
    • Effective representation of communities of interest

    What does fair representation mean?

    One of the key requirements for fair representation of electors is that each elected member should represent roughly the same number of people – this helps ensure that all votes are of approximately equal value.

    The population of each ward, divided by the number of members to be elected by their ward, must produce a figure no more than 10% greater or smaller than the population of the district, divided by the total of elected members.

    For example, if the population of a district is 100,000 people and there are 10 elected councillors, the arrangement of wards and councillors must be organised so that each councillor represents around 10,000 people (+ or – 10%).

    This is a key factor in working out the boundaries of wards and number of councillors per ward.

    What is effective representation of communities of interest?

    The legislation does not define what a community of interest is, but the concept includes things like:

    • people feeling a sense of identity and belonging to the area
    • people using the same services
    • elected members being able to represent the interests of the area.

    Achieving effective representation means that wards should be based on communities of interests - that is areas that people identify with and relate to. This helps to determine what ward boundaries should be.

    When deciding the size of wards and their boundaries, communities of interest should not be split. Disparate communities of interest should not be joined together into one ward.

    What are wards and subdivisions?

    Wards and subdivisions are purely ways of splitting up a council area (wards) or community board area (subdivisions) into smaller areas for election purposes. They serve the same function as electorates for national elections. Wards and subdivisions must comply with the requirements for effective representation of communities of interest and fair representation.

    Why do representation arrangements need to change from what’s currently in place?

    The Council’s current electoral representation (11 councillors and four wards) is no longer compliant, so must be changed. 

    Because of the rapid but uneven population growth in Selwyn over recent years, the ratio of population per councillor no longer meets the +/-10% requirement. In particular, the ratio in Selwyn central is now well above the average, while the ratio in Malvern and Ellesmere is significantly lower.

    2014 estimated  population*
    2020 estimated population*
    % increase
    Malvern Ward
    Selwyn Central Ward
    Ellesmere Ward
    Springs Ward

    * Source: Statistics NZ

    This means the current ward boundaries and number of councillors must be reviewed.

    How will the proposal affect my rates?

    Councillors are funded from district rates, but the changes to the ward boundaries or the number of councillors will not have a significant impact on rates. Councillors’ remuneration is based on a fixed pool of funds which is set independently by a government agency, the Remuneration Authority. This amount does not go up or down in relation to the number of councillors. It also means that change in the number of councillors will not affect the total amount paid to councillors overall, as the total is divided between the number of elected members.

    Community boards are funded by a targeted rate within the respective ward. Under this final proposal the current targeted community board rate for the Malvern Ward will be retained.

    What are community boards?

    A community board is an elected body that works locally in the specific geographic area it represents. Community boards are often established in wards which cover a wide geographical area and contain groups with significantly different communities of interest. 

    A community board is an unincorporated body and is not a committee of the council. Currently, only the Malvern Ward has a community board.

    Community boards can have a range of purposes including: 

    • representing and advocating for the interests of its local community
    • considering and reporting on matters referred to it by the council
    • maintaining an overview of services provided by the council within the local community
    • preparing submissions to the council for funding within the community
    • communicating with community organisations and special interest groups within the community undertaking any other responsibilities delegated to it by the council.

    What is the process for the representation review?

    To help us decide on the preferred option for new representation arrangements, we first sought the community’s views on different preliminary options, during preliminary consultation in July 2021.  

    The Council’s Representation Review Subcommittee considered the community’s feedback on four preliminary options, along with other analysis and community information, before developing the initial proposal. Public consultation on the initial proposal was undertaken from 3 September until 4 October 2021.

    After the public hearing of submissions on the initial proposal, the Council deliberated and made a resolution determining the final proposal. The Council resolved not to make any amendments to the initial proposal. The Council publicly notified its final proposal on 10 November 2021.

    The final proposal is now subject to appeals, which must be made in writing and must be received by the Council no later than 5pm on Monday 13 December 2021. The Council must forward any appeals to the Local Government Commission no later than 15 January 2022. The Commission will make its determination by 11 April 2022.

    What is the final proposal?

    The final proposal is unchanged from the initial proposal. Therefore the final proposal is as follows.

    Council representation
    It is proposed that the Council comprise 10 members elected from four wards, and the mayor.

    The four wards reflect the following identified communities of interest:




    Population per Member

    Ellesmere Ward




    Malvern Ward




    Rolleston Ward




    Springs Ward








    In accordance with section 19V(2), Local Electoral Act 2001 the population that each member represents is within the range of 6,968 +/- 10% (6,271 to 7,665).

    Community Board Representation

    It is proposed that one community board be elected, representing the Malvern Ward. 

    Community Board

    Communities of interest

    Malvern Community Board

    Arthur’s Pass, Castle Hill, Coalgate, Darfield, Glenroy, Glentunnel, Greendale, Halkett, Hororata, Kirwee, Lake Coleridge, Sheffield, Springfield, West Melton, Waddington, Whitecliffs, Windwhistle

    The Malvern Community Board will elect five members. One councillor will be appointed to the community board from the Malvern Ward. 

    The Malvern Community Board will be subdivided for electoral purposes as follows:


    Area of Subdivision


    Darfield, Kirwee, Sheffield, Waddington


    Arthur’s Pass, Castle Hill, Coalgate, Glenroy, Glentunnel, Greendale, Hororata, Lake Coleridge, Springfield, Whitecliffs, Windwhistle

    West Melton

    Halkett, West Melton

    The population that the members of each subdivision will represent is shown below:




    Population per Member

    Hawkins Subdivision




    Tawera Subdivision




    West Melton Subdivision








    The population each member of the Malvern Community Board represents falls within the range of 2,980 +/-10% (2,682 – 3,278) in accordance with section 19V(2), Local Electoral Act.

    Who can make an appeal against Council’s final proposal?

    Any person who made a submission on the Council’s initial proposal may lodge an appeal against the Council’s decision. An appeal must relate to the matters raised in that person's submission.

    How can I make an appeal against Council’s final proposal?

    If you have made a submission on the initial proposal you can make an appeal which must be made in writing. Appeals are to be forwarded to:

    • Attention: Stephen Hill, Deputy Electoral Officer
    • Selwyn District Council, 2 Norman Kirk Drive, Rolleston; PO Box 90 Rolleston 7643
    • Email: representation@selwyn.govt.nz
    • Phone: 0800 735 996.

    When does the appeal period close?

    Appeals must be received by Council no later than 5pm on Monday 13 December 2021.

    What feedback did you receive on the initial proposal?

    The Council received 14 submissions on its proposal. Five submissions were in favour of the Council’s proposal. Nine submissions contained objections to various elements of the proposal, as follows:

    • eight submitters objected to the proposal to move West Melton from the current Selwyn Central Ward to the Malvern Ward.
    • one submitter opposed the changes to ward boundaries but supported the proposal to reduce the number of councillors
    • two submitters considered that an area in the vicinity of West Rolleston should be retained in the proposed Rolleston Ward
    • one submitter considered that the reduction in the number of councillors would reduce the effectiveness of representation
    • two submitters indicated their preference for the option of three wards and 10 councillors from the previous round of preliminary consultation
    • four submitters opposed the proposal to retain the Malvern Community Board and add an additional subdivision for West Melton.

    You can see our response to the submissions in Council report on the final proposal.

    What feedback did you receive on the preliminary options?

    In June 2021 the Subcommittee developed four options to be the basis for preliminary consultation which took place in July 2021. 

    These were:·

    • Option 1: Four wards, 10 councillors·
    • Option 2: Three wards (Springs/Ellesmere combined), 10 councillors·
    • Option 3: Three wards (Springs/Ellesmere combined), 9 councillors·
    • Option 4: Four wards, 7 councillors.

    No specific community board options were presented, but residents were asked to indicate whether or not they would like to have a community board in their ward. 

    A total of 106 submissions were received. Of the four proposed options, options 1, 2 and 4 scored within 6% of each other: option 2 (three wards, 10 councillors) was supported by 30% of respondents; option 1 (four wards, 10 councillors) was supported by 26%; and option 4 (four wards, 7 councillors) was supported by 24%.In relation to community boards, 62% of respondents indicated that they favoured having a community board in their ward, compared to 38% who did not.

    Who sits on the Council’s Representation Review Subcommittee?

    The subcommittee comprises Councillors Mark Alexander (Chair), Shane Epiha (Deputy Chair), Grant Miller and Jenny Gallagher, Mayor Sam Broughton and Malvern Community Board Chair Mr John Morten.